Valencia, E., Galland, T., Carmona, C.P., Goberna, M., Götzenberger, L., Lepš, J., Verdú, M., Macek, P. & de Bello, F. 2022. The functional structure of plant communities drives soil functioning via changes in soil abiotic properties. Ecology

Puglielli, G., Carmona, C.P., Varone, L., Laanisto, L. & Ricotta, C. 2022. Phenotypic dissimilarity index: Correcting for intra and interindividual variability when quantifying phenotypic variation. Ecology

Davison, J.,  Vasar, M.,  Sepp, S.-K.,  Oja, J.,  Al-Quraishy, S.,  ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Zobel, M. 2022. Dominance, diversity, and niche breadth in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities. Ecology

Ingerpuu, N., Ehrlich, L., Leis, M., Kupper, T., Kannukene, L., & Vellak, K. 2022. Additions and changes to the species list of Estonian bryophytes. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 59: 23-25.

Rodríguez-Alarcón, S., Tamme, R., & Carmona, C.P. 2022. Intraspecific trait changes in response to drought lead to trait convergence between—but not within—species. Functional Ecology 36: 1900-1911.

Paganeli, B., Toussaint, A., Bueno, C.G., Fujinuma, J., Reier, Ü., & Pärtel, M. 2022. Dark diversity at home describes the success of cross-continent tree invasions. Diversity and Distributions 28: 1202-1213.

Mugnai, M., Trindade, D.P.F., Thierry, M., Kaushik, K., Hrček, J., & Götzenberger, L. 2022. Environment and space drive the community assembly of Atlantic European grasslands: Insights from multiple facets. Journal of Biogeography 49: 699-711.

Bahram, M., Espenberg, M., Pärn, J., Lehtovirta-Morley, L., Anslan, S., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Mander, Ü. 2022. Nature Communications 13: 1430.

Vasar, M., Davison, J., Sepp, S.-K., Mucina, L., Oja, J., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Zobel, M. 2022. Global soil microbiomes: A new frontline of biome-ecology research. Global Ecology and Biogeography 31: 1120-1132.

Vasar, M., Davison, J., Sepp, S.-K., Oja, J., Al-Quraishy, S., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Zobel, M. 2022. Global taxonomic and phylogenetic assembly of AM fungi. Mycorrhiza 32: 135–144.

Pärtel, M., Sabatini, F.M., Morueta-Holme, N., Kreft, H., & Dengler, J. 2022. Macroecology of vegetation — Lessons learnt from the Virtual Special Issue. Journal of Vegetation Science 33: e13121.

Sperandii, M.G., de Bello, F., Valencia, E., Götzenberger, L., Bazzichetto, M., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Lepš, J. 2022. LOTVS: A global collection of permanent vegetation plots. Journal of Vegetation Science 33: e13115.

Yannelli, F.A., Bazzichetto, M., Conradi, T., Pattison, Z., Andrade, B.O., ..., Tordoni, E., ..., & Sperandii, M.G. 2022. Fifteen emerging challenges and opportunities for vegetation science: A horizon scan by early career researchers. Journal of Vegetation Science 33: e13119.

Leon, D., Bueno, C.G., Zobel, M., Bennett, J.A., Puglielli, G., Davison, J., Riibak, K., Pärtel, M., & Moora, M. 2022. Plant diversity but not productivity is associated with community mycorrhization in temperate grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science 33: e13107.

Vellak, K., & Ingerpuu, N. 2022. Checklist of Cambodian mosses. Nova Hedwigia 114: 39-53.

Su, G., Tedesco, P. A., Toussaint, A., Villéger, S., & Brosse, S. 2022. Contemporary environment and historical legacy explain functional diversity of freshwater fishes in the world rivers. Global Ecology and Biogeography 31: 700-713.

Valencia E., de Bello F., Galland T., Götzenberger L., Lepš J., Durán J., & Carmona C.P. 2022. Effects of functional and phylogenetic diversity on the temporal dynamics of soil N availability. Plant and Soil 472: 629-640.

Puy, J., Carmona, C.P., Hiiesalu, I., Öpik, M., de Bello, F., & Moora, M. 2022. Mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates plant water deficit within and across generations via phenotypic plasticity. Journal of Ecology 110: 262-276.

Tullus, T., Lutter, R., Randlane, T., Saag, A., Tullus, A., Oja, E., Degtjarenko, P., Pärtel, M., & Tullus, H. 2022. The effect of stand age on biodiversity in a 130-year chronosequence of Populus tremula stands. Forest Ecology and Management 504: 119833.


Burrascano, S., Trentanovi, G., Paillet, Y., Heilmann-Clausen, J., Giordani, P., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Ódor, P. 2021. Handbook of field sampling for multi-taxon biodiversity studies in European forests. Ecological Indicators 132: 108266.

Daru, B.H., Davies, T.J., Willis, C.G., Meineke, E.K., Ronk, A., Zobel, M., Pärtel, M., Antonelli, A., & Davis, C.C. 2021. Widespread homogenization of plant communities in the Anthropocene. Nature Communications 12: 6983.

Dawson, S.K., Carmona, C.P., González-Suárez, M., Jönsson, M., Chichorro, F., Mallen-Cooper, M., Melero, Y., Moor, H., Simaika, J.P., & Duthie, A.B. 2021. The traits of “trait ecologists”: An analysis of the use of trait and functional trait terminology. Ecology and Evolution 11: 16434-16445.

Silvestre, M., Carmona, C.P., Azcárate, F.M., & Seoane, J. 2021. Diverging facets of grassland ant diversity along a Mediterranean elevational gradient. Ecological Entomology 46: 1301-1314.

Villellas, J., Ehrlén, J., Crone, E.E., Csergő, A.M., Garcia, M.B., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Buckley, Y.M. 2021. Phenotypic plasticity masks range-wide genetic differentiation for vegetative but not reproductive traits in a short-lived plant. Ecology Letters 24: 2378-2393.

Carmona, C.P., Bueno, C.G., Toussaint, A., Träger, S., Díaz, S., Moora, M., Munson, A.D., Pärtel, M., Zobel, M., & Tamme, R. 2021. Fine-root traits in the global spectrum of plant form and function. Nature 597: 683–687.

Sabatini, F.M., Lenoir, J., Hattab, T., Arnst, E.A., Chytrý, M., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Bruelheide, H. 2021. sPlotOpen – An environmentally balanced, open-access, global dataset of vegetation plots. Global Ecology and Biogeography 30: 1740-1764.

Brosse, S., Charpin, N., Su, G., Toussaint, A., Herrera‐R, G.A., Tedesco, P.A., & Villéger, S. 2021. FISHMORPH: A global database on morphological traits of freshwater fishes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 30: 2330-2336.

Hevia, V., Carmona, C.P., Azcárate, F.M., Heredia, R., & González, J.A. 2021. Role of floral strips and semi-natural habitats as enhancers of wild bee functional diversity in intensive agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 319: 107544.

Freitas, M.A.B., Magalhães, J.L.L., Carmona, C.P., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Vieira, I.C.G., & Tabarelli, M. 2021. Intensification of açaí palm management largely impoverishes tree assemblages in the Amazon estuarine forest. Biological Conservation 261: 109251.

Toussaint, A., Brosse, S., Bueno, C.G., Pärtel, M., Tamme, R., & Carmona, C.P. 2021. Extinction of threatened vertebrates will lead to idiosyncratic changes in functional diversity across the world. Nature Communications 12: 5162.

Maccherini, S., Salerni, E., Mocali, S., Bianchetto, E., Landi, S., ..., Tordoni, E., ..., & Cantiani, P. 2021. Silvicultural management does not affect biotic communities in conifer plantations in the short-term: A multi-taxon assessment using a BACI approach. Forest Ecology and Management 493: 119257.

Vellak, K., Samson, T., Rikka, M., & Ingerpuu, N. 2021. Above- and below-ground species richness of bryophytes in Estonian mires: diversity and differences. Journal of Bryology 43: 224-233.

Puglielli, G., Tordoni, E., Humphreys, A.M., Kalwij, J.M., Hutchings, M.J., & Laanisto, L. 2021. The cold-drought tolerance trade-off in temperate woody plants constrains range size, but not range filling. bioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.07.24.453622.

Pärtel, J., Pärtel, M., & Wäldchen, J. 2021. Plant image identification application demonstrates high accuracy in Northern Europe. AoB PLANTS 13: plab050.

Noreika, N., Pärtel, M., & Öpik, M. 2021. Effects of mutualistic and pathogenic soil mycobiota on forest ecosystem functioning: herbaceous phytometer growth on natural and sterilised soils. Ecological Indicators 127: 107792.

Bennett, J.A., & Pärtel, M. 2021. Using functional dissimilarity among species pools and communities to predict establishment of native and alien species. Journal of Vegetation Science 32: e13062.

Biurrun, I., Pielech, R., Dembicz, I., Gillet, F., Kozub, Ł., ...,Ingerpuu, N., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Dengler, J. 2021. Benchmarking plant diversity of Palaearctic grasslands and other open habitats. Journal of Vegetation Science 32: e13050.

Davison, J., Moora, M., Semchenko, M., Adenan, S.B., Ahmed, T., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Öpik, M. 2021. Temperature and pH define the realised niche space of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 231: 763–776.

Tordoni, E., Toussaint, A., Pärtel, M., Nogues-Bravo, D., & Carmona, C.P. 2021. Combining taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity reveals new global priority areas for tetrapod conservation. bioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.07.01.450689.

Valdez, J.W., Brunbjerg, A.K., Fløjgaard, C., Dalby, L., Clausen, K.K., Pärtel, M., Pfeifer, N., Hollaus, M., Wimmer, M.H., Ejrnæs, R., & Moeslund, J.E. 2021. Relationships between macro-fungal dark diversity and habitat parameters using LiDAR. Fungal Ecology 51: 101054.

Conti, L., Malavasi, M., Galland, T., Komárek, J., Lagner, O., Carmona, C.P., Bello, F., Rocchini, D., & Šímová, P. 2021. The relationship between species and spectral diversity in grassland communities is mediated by their vertical complexity. Applied Vegetation Science 24: e12600.

Trindade, D.P.F., Pärtel, M., Carmona, C.P., Randlane, T., & Nascimbene, J. 2021. Integrating dark diversity and functional traits to enhance nature conservation of epiphytic lichens: a case study from Northern Italy. Biodiversity and Conservation 30: 2565–2579.

Puy, J., Carmona, C.P., Dvořáková, H., Latzel, V., & Bello, F. de. 2021. Diversity of parental environments increases phenotypic variation in Arabidopsis populations more than genetic diversity but similarly affects productivity. Annals of Botany 127: 425–436.

Testolin, R., Carmona, C.P., Attorre, F., Borchardt, P., Bruelheide, ..., & Jiménez‐Alfaro, B. 2021. Global functional variation in alpine vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science 32: e13000.

Wong, M.K.L., & Carmona, C.P. 2021. Including intraspecific trait variability to avoid distortion of functional diversity and ecological inference: Lessons from natural assemblages. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 12: 946–957.

Lisner, A., Pärtel, M., Helm, A., Prangel, E., & Lepš, J. 2021. Traits as determinants of species abundance in a grassland community. Journal of Vegetation Science 32: e13041.

Carmona, C.P., Tamme, R., Pärtel, M., Bello, F. de, Brosse, S., Capdevila, P., González-M., R., González-Suárez, M., Salguero-Gómez, R., Vásquez-Valderrama, M., & Toussaint, A. 2021. Erosion of global functional diversity across the tree of life. Science Advances 7: eabf2675.

Olmo, V., Tordoni, E., Petruzzellis, F., Bacaro, G., & Altobelli, A. 2021. Use of Sentinel-2 satellite data for windthrows monitoring and delimiting: the case of “Vaia” storm in Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North-Eastern Italy). Remote Sensing 13: 1530.

De Bello, F., Carmona, C.P., Dias, A., Götzenberger, L., Moretti, M., & Berg, M. 2021. Handbook of Trait-Based Ecology: From Theory to R Tools. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

González‐M., R., Posada, J.M., Carmona, C.P., Garzón, F., Salinas, V., ..., & Salgado‐Negret, B. 2021. Diverging functional strategies but high sensitivity to an extreme drought in tropical dry forests. Ecology Letters 24: 451–463.

Tamme, R., Pärtel, M., Kõljalg, U., Laanisto, L., Liira, J., Mander, Ü., Moora, M., Niinemets, Ü., Öpik, M., Ostonen, I., Tedersoo, L., & Zobel, M. 2021. Global macroecology of nitrogen‐fixing plants. Global Ecology and Biogeography 30: 514–526.

Kmoch, A., Kanal, A., Astover, A., Kull, A., Virro, H., Helm, A., Pärtel, M., Ostonen, I., & Uuemaa, E. 2021. EstSoil-EH: a high-resolution eco-hydrological modelling parameters dataset for Estonia. Earth System Science Data 13: 83–97.

Puy, J., Bello, F., Dvořáková, H., Medina, N.G., Latzel, V., & Carmona, C.P. 2021. Competition‐induced transgenerational plasticity influences competitive interactions and leaf decomposition of offspring. New Phytologist 229: 3497–3507.

Carmona, C.P., & Pärtel, M. 2021. Estimating probabilistic site‐specific species pools and dark diversity from co‐occurrence data. Global Ecology and Biogeography 30: 316–326.

Jõks, M., Kreft, H., Weigelt, P., & Pärtel, M. 2021. Legacy of archipelago history in modern island biodiversity – An agent‐based simulation model. Global Ecology and Biogeography 30: 247–261.


Mammola, S., Carmona, C. P., Guillerme, T., & Cardoso, P. 2020. Concepts and applications in functional diversity. EcoEvoRxiv. doi:10.32942/

Noreika, N., Pärtel, M., & Öckinger, E. 2020. Community completeness as a measure of restoration success: multiple-study comparisons across ecosystems and ecological groups. Biodiversity and Conservation 29: 3807–3827.

Aavik, T., Carmona, C.P., Träger, S., Kaldra, M., Reinula, I., Conti, E., Keller, B., Helm, A., Hiiesalu, I., Hool, K., Kaisel, M., Oja, T., Lotman, S., & Pärtel, M. 2020. Landscape context and plant population size affect morph frequencies in heterostylous Primula veris—Results of a nationwide citizen‐science campaign. Journal of Ecology 108: 2169–2183.

Trindade, D.P.F., Sfair, J.C., Paula, A.S., Barros, M.F., & Tabarelli, M. 2020. Water availability mediates functional shifts across ontogenetic stages in a regenerating seasonally dry tropical forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 31: 1088–1099.

Lembrechts, J.J., Aalto, J., Ashcroft, M.B., Frenne, P.D., Kopecký, M., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Nijs, I. 2020. SoilTemp: A global database of near‐surface temperature. Global Change Biology 26: 6616–6629.

Riibak, K., Bennett, J.A., Kook, E., Reier, Ü., Tamme, R., Bueno, C.G., & Pärtel, M. 2020. Drivers of plant community completeness differ at regional and landscape scales. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 301: 107004.

Dézerald, O., Mondy, C.P., Dembski, S., Kreutzenberger, K., Reyjol, Y., Chandesris, A., Valette, L., Brosse, S., Toussaint, A., Belliard, J., Merg, M.-L., & Usseglio-Polatera, P. 2020. A diagnosis-based approach to assess specific risks of river degradation in a multiple pressure context: Insights from fish communities. Science of The Total Environment 734: 139467.

Valencia, E., Bello, F. de, Galland, T., Adler, P.B., Lepš, J., ..., Carmona, C.P., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Götzenberger, L. 2020. Synchrony matters more than species richness in plant community stability at a global scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117: 24345–24351.

Galland, T., Carmona, C.P., Götzenberger, L., Valencia, E., & Bello, F. de. 2020. Are redundancy indices redundant? An evaluation based on parameterized simulations. Ecological Indicators 116: 106488.

Valencia, E., Bello, F. de, Lepš, J., Galland, T., E‐Vojtkó, A., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Götzenberger, L. 2020. Directional trends in species composition over time can lead to a widespread overemphasis of year‐to‐year asynchrony. Journal of Vegetation Science 31: 792–802.

Carmona, C.P., & Pärtel, M. 2020. DarkDiv: Estimating Dark Diversity and Site-Specific Species Pools. R package version 0.3.0.

Ingerpuu, N., Vellak, K., Hagborg, A., & Söderström, L. 2020. The Angkor Wat Kingdom-liverworts from Cambodia. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft 150: 293−316.

Fløjgaard, C., Valdez, J.W., Dalby, L., Moeslund, J.E., Clausen, K.K., Ejrnæs, R., Pärtel, M., & Brunbjerg, A.K. 2020. Dark diversity reveals importance of biotic resources and competition for plant diversity across habitats. Ecology and Evolution 10: 6078–6088.

Trindade, D.P.F., Carmona, C.P., & Pärtel, M. 2020. Temporal lags in observed and dark diversity in the Anthropocene. Global Change Biology 26: 3193–3201.

Mason, N.W.H., Orwin, K.H., Lambie, S., Waugh, D., Pronger, J., Carmona, C.P., & Mudge, P. 2020. Resource-use efficiency drives overyielding via enhanced complementarity. Oecologia 193: 995–1010.

Carmona, C.P., Guerrero, I., Peco, B., Morales, M.B., Oñate, J.J., Pärt, T., Tscharntke, T., Liira, J., Aavik, T., Emmerson, M., Berendse, F., Ceryngier, P., Bretagnolle, V., Weisser, W.W., & Bengtsson, J. 2020. Agriculture intensification reduces plant taxonomic and functional diversity across European arable systems. Functional Ecology 34: 1448–1460.

Tullus, T., Lutter, R., Randlane, T., Saag, A., Tullus, A., Roosaluste, E., Kõresaar, P., Pärtel, M., & Tullus, H. 2020. Seventy-year history of management using low-intensity harvesting methods: weak impact on biodiversity of hemiboreal Scots pine forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 50: 1268–1280.

Jonstrup, A., Hedrén, M., Oja, T., Talve, T., & Andersson, S. 2020. The evolution of spring fen ecotypes in Rhinanthus: genetic evidence for parallel origins in Scandinavia after the last ice age. Plant Systematics and Evolution 306: 35.

Toussaint, A., Bueno, G., Davison, J., Moora, M., Tedersoo, L., Zobel, M., Öpik, M., & Pärtel, M. 2020. Asymmetric patterns of global diversity among plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Journal of Vegetation Science 31: 355–366.

Smith, A.L., Hodkinson, T.R., Villellas, J., Catford, J.A., Csergő, A.M., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Buckley, Y.M. 2020. Global gene flow releases invasive plants from environmental constraints on genetic diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117: 4218–4227.

Kattge, J., Bönisch, G., Díaz, S., Lavorel, S., Prentice, I.C., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., Riibak, K., ..., & Wirth, C. 2020. TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access. Global Change Biology 26: 119–188.

Micó, E., Ramilo, P., Thorn, S., Müller, J., Galante, E., & Carmona, C.P. 2020. Contrasting functional structure of saproxylic beetle assemblages associated to different microhabitats. Scientific Reports 10: 1520.


Carmona, C.P., Bello, F., Mason, N.W.H., & Lepš, J. 2019. Trait probability density (TPD): measuring functional diversity across scales based on TPD with R. Ecology 100: e02876.

Noreika, N., Helm, A., Öpik, M., Jairus, T., Vasar, M., Reier, Ü., Kook, E., Riibak, K., Kasari, L., Tullus, H., Tullus, T., Lutter, R., Oja, E., Saag, A., Randlane, T., & Pärtel, M. 2019. Forest biomass, soil and biodiversity relationships originate from biogeographic affinity and direct ecological effects. Oikos 128: 1653–1665.

Pistón, N., Bello, F., Dias, A.T.C., Götzenberger, L., Rosado, B.H.P., Mattos, E.A., Salguero‐Gómez, R., & Carmona, C.P. 2019. Multidimensional ecological analyses demonstrate how interactions between functional traits shape fitness and life history strategies. Journal of Ecology 107: 2317–2328.

Galland, T., Adeux, G., Dvořáková, H., E‐Vojtkó, A., Orbán, I., Lussu, M., Puy, J., Blažek, P., Lanta, V., Lepš, J., Bello, F., Carmona, C.P., Valencia, E., & Götzenberger, L. 2019. Colonization resistance and establishment success along gradients of functional and phylogenetic diversity in experimental plant communities. Journal of Ecology 107: 2090–2104.

Carmona, C.P., Bello, F., Azcárate, F.M., Mason, N.W.H., & Peco, B. 2019. Trait hierarchies and intraspecific variability drive competitive interactions in Mediterranean annual plants. Journal of Ecology 107: 2078–2089.

Pärtel, M., Carmona, C.P., Zobel, M., Moora, M., Riibak, K., & Tamme, R. 2019. DarkDivNet – A global research collaboration to explore the dark diversity of plant communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 30: 1039–1043.

Aavik, T., Thetloff, M., Träger, S., Hernández-Agramonte, I.M., Reinula, I., & Pärtel, M. 2019. Delayed and immediate effects of habitat loss on the genetic diversity of the grassland plant Trifolium montanum. Biodiversity and Conservation 28: 3299–3319.

Schrader, J., König, C., Moeljono, S., Pärtel, M., & Kreft, H. 2019. Requirements of plant species are linked to area and determine species pool and richness on small islands. Journal of Vegetation Science 30: 599–609.

Chen, S., Tamme, R., Thomson, F.J., & Moles, A.T. 2019. Seeds tend to disperse further in the tropics. Ecology Letters 22: 954–961.

Jõks, M., & Pärtel, M. 2019. Plant diversity in Oceanic archipelagos: realistic patterns emulated by an agent‐based computer simulation. Ecography 42: 740–754.

Träger, S., Öpik, M., Vasar, M., & Wilson, S.D. 2019. Belowground plant parts are crucial for comprehensively estimating total plant richness in herbaceous and woody habitats. Ecology 100: e02575.

Ingerpuu, N., Kupper, T., Vellak, K., Kupper, P., Sõber, J., Tullus, A., Zobel, M., & Liira, J. 2019. Response of bryophytes to afforestation, increase of air humidity, and enrichment of soil diaspore bank. Forest Ecology and Management 432: 64–72.

Plue, J., Aavik, T., & Cousins, S.A.O. 2019. Grazing networks promote plant functional connectivity among isolated grassland communities. Diversity and Distributions 25: 102–115.


Van Geel, M., Jacquemyn, H., Plue, J., Saar, L., Kasari, L., Peeters, G., Acker, K., Honnay, O., & Ceulemans, T. 2018. Abiotic rather than biotic filtering shapes the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities of European seminatural grasslands. New Phytologist 220: 1262–1272.

Valencia, E., Gross, N., Quero, J.L., Carmona, C.P., Ochoa, V., Gozalo, B., Delgado‐Baquerizo, M., Dumack, K., Hamonts, K., Singh, B.K., Bonkowski, M., & Maestre, F.T. 2018. Cascading effects from plants to soil microorganisms explain how plant species richness and simulated climate change affect soil multifunctionality. Global Change Biology 24: 5642–5654.

Toussaint, A., Charpin, N., Beauchard, O., Grenouillet, G., Oberdorff, T., Tedesco, P.A., Brosse, S., & Villéger, S. 2018. Non‐native species led to marked shifts in functional diversity of the world freshwater fish faunas. Ecology Letters 21: 1649–1659.

Loiola, P.P., Bello, F., Chytrý, M., Götzenberger, L., Carmona, C.P., Pyšek, P., & Lososová, Z. 2018. Invaders among locals: Alien species decrease phylogenetic and functional diversity while increasing dissimilarity among native community members. Journal of Ecology 106: 2230–2241.

Bruelheide, H., Dengler, J., Purschke, O., Lenoir, J., Jiménez-Alfaro, B., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Jandt, U. 2018. Global trait–environment relationships of plant communities. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2: 1906–1917.

Kuczynski, L., Côte, J., Toussaint, A., Brosse, S., Buisson, L., & Grenouillet, G. 2018. Spatial mismatch in morphological, ecological and phylogenetic diversity, in historical and contemporary European freshwater fish faunas. Ecography 41: 1665–1674.

MacDougall, A.S., McCune, J.L., Eriksson, O., Cousins, S.A.O., Pärtel, M., Firn, J., & Hierro, J.L. 2018. The Neolithic Plant Invasion Hypothesis: the role of preadaptation and disturbance in grassland invasion. New Phytologist 220: 94–103.

Schmidt, L., Schmid, B., Oja, T., & Fischer, M. 2018. Genetic differentiation, phenotypic plasticity and adaptation in a hybridizing pair of a more common and a less common Carex species. Alpine Botany 128: 149–167.

Dengler, J., Wagner, V., Dembicz, I., Garcia-Mijangos, I., Naqinezhad, A., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Biurrun, I. 2018. GrassPlot - a database of multi-scale plant diversity in Palaearctic grasslands. Phytocoenologia 48: 331-347.

Aavik, T., & Helm, A. 2018. Restoration of plant species and genetic diversity depends on landscape‐scale dispersal. Restoration Ecology 26: S92–S102.

Török, P., Helm, A., Kiehl, K., Buisson, E., & Valkó, O. 2018. Beyond the species pool: modification of species dispersal, establishment, and assembly by habitat restoration. Restoration Ecology 26: S65–S72.

Davison, J., Moora, M., Öpik, M., Ainsaar, L., Ducousso, M., Hiiesalu, I., Jairus, T., Johnson, N., Jourand, P., Kalamees, R., Koorem, K., Meyer, J.-Y., Püssa, K., Reier, Ü., Pärtel, M., Semchenko, M., Traveset, A., Vasar, M., & Zobel, M. 2018. Microbial island biogeography: isolation shapes the life history characteristics but not diversity of root-symbiotic fungal communities. The ISME Journal 12: 2211–2224.

Li, Y., Shipley, B., Price, J.N., Dantas, V. de L., Tamme, R., ..., & Batalha, M.A. 2018. Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide. Journal of Ecology 106: 1001–1009.

Bullock, J.M., Hooftman, D.A.P., Tamme, R., Götzenberger, L., Pärtel, M., González, L.M., & White, S.M. 2018. All dispersal functions are wrong, but many are useful: A response to Cousens et al. Journal of Ecology 106: 907–910.

Tedersoo, L., Laanisto, L., Rahimlou, S., Toussaint, A., Hallikma, T., & Pärtel, M. 2018. Global database of plants with root‐symbiotic nitrogen fixation: NodDB. Journal of Vegetation Science 29: 560–568.

Ingerpuu, N., & Vellak, K. 2018. Are viable diaspores valid members of the local bryophyte flora? Journal of Bryology 40: 193–195.

Puy, J., Dvořáková, H., Carmona, C.P., Bello, F. de, Hiiesalu, I., & Latzel, V. 2018. Improved demethylation in ecological epigenetic experiments: Testing a simple and harmless foliar demethylation application. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9: 744–753.

Schmidt, L., Fischer, M., & Oja, T. 2018. Two closely related species differ in their regional genetic differentiation despite admixing. AoB PLANTS 10: ply007.

Hautier, Y., Isbell, F., Borer, E.T., Seabloom, E.W., Harpole, W.S., ..., Pärtel, M., ..., & Hector, A. 2018. Local loss and spatial homogenization of plant diversity reduce ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2: 50–56.

Martello, F., Bello, F. de, Morini, M.S. de C., Silva, R.R., Souza-Campana, D.R. de, Ribeiro, M.C., & Carmona, C.P. 2018. Homogenization and impoverishment of taxonomic and functional diversity of ants in Eucalyptus plantations. Scientific Reports 8: 3266.

Faria, N., Peco, B., & Carmona, C.P. 2018. Effects of haying on vegetation communities, taxonomic diversity and sward properties in mediterranean dry grasslands: A preliminary assessment. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 251: 48–58.


Carmona, C.P., de Bello, F., Sasaki, T., Uchida, K. & Pärtel, M. (2017). Towards a common toolbox for rarity: a response to Violle et al. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 32: 889-891.

Peco, B., Navarro, E., Carmona, C.P., Medina, N.G. & Marques, M.J. (2017) Effects of grazing abandonment on soil multifunctionality: the role of plant functional traits. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 249: 215–225.

Ingerpuu, N. & Vellak, K. (2017). Methods for monitoring threatened bryophytes. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 3275–3287.

Randlane, T., Tullus, T., Saag, A., Lutter, R., Tullus, A., Helm, A., Tullus, H. & Pärtel, M. (2017). Diversity of lichens and bryophytes in hybrid aspen plantations in Estonia depends on landscape structure. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 47: 1202-1214.

Pärtel, M., Öpik, M., Moora, M., Tedersoo, L., Szava-Kovats, R., Rosendahl, S., Rillig, M.C., Lekberg, Y., Kreft, H., Helgason, T., Eriksson, O., Davison, J., de Bello, F., Caruso, T. & Zobel, M. (2017). Historical biome distribution and recent human disturbance shape the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 216: 227-238.

Pärtel, M., Zobel, M., Öpik, M. & Tedersoo, L. (2017). Global patterns in local and dark diversity, species pool size and community completeness in ectomycorrhizal fungi. In: Tedersoo, L. (ed.) Biogeography of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Springer, Cham.

Bueno, C.G., Moora, M., Gerz, M., Davison, J., Öpik, M., Pärtel, M., Helm, A., Ronk, A., Kühn, I. & Zobel, M. (2017). Plant mycorrhizal status, but not type, shifts with latitude and elevation in Europe. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26: 690-699.

Bennett, J.A. & Pärtel, M. (2017). Predicting species establishment using absent species and functional neighborhoods. Ecology and Evolution 7: 2223-2237.

Schmidt, L., Fischer, M., Schmid, B. & Oja, T. (2017). Despite admixing two closely related Carex species differ in their regional morphological differentiation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 303: 901-914.

Riibak, K., Ronk, A., Kattge, J. & Pärtel, M. (2017) Dispersal limitation determines large-scale dark diversity in Central and Northern Europe. Journal of Biogeography 44: 1770-1780.

Aavik, T., Talve, T., Thetloff, M., Uuemaa, E. & Oja, T. (2017) Genetic consequences of landscape change for rare endemic plants – A case study of Rhinanthus osiliensis. Biological Conservation 210: 125-135.

Saar, L., de Bello, F., Pärtel, M. & Helm, A. (2017). Trait assembly in grasslands depends on habitat history and spatial scale. Oecologia 184: 1-12.

Bullock, J.M., Mallada González, L., Tamme, R., Götzenberger, L., White, S.M., Pärtel, M. & Hooftman, D.A.P. (2017) A synthesis of empirical plant dispersal kernels. Journal of Ecology 105: 6-19.

Ronk, A., Szava-Kovats, R., Zobel, M. & Pärtel, M. (2017) Observed and dark diversity of alien plant species in Europe: estimating future invasion risk. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 899-916.

Price, J., Tamme, R., Gazol, A., de Bello, F., Takkis, K., Uria Diez, J., Kasari, L. & Pärtel, M (2017) Within-community environmental variability drives trait variability in species-rich grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science 28: 303-312.

Török, P. & Helm, A. (2017) Ecological theory provides strong support for habitat restoration. Biological Conservation 206: 85-91.

Lewis, R. J., Bello, F., Bennett, J. A., Fibich, P., Finerty, G. E., Götzenberger, L., Hiiesalu, I., Kasari, L., Lepš, J., Májeková, M., Mudrák, O., Riibak, K., Ronk, A., Rychtecká, T., Vitová, A., Pärtel, M. (2017) Applying the dark diversity concept to nature conservation. Conservation Biology 31: 40-47.


Bennett, J.A., Riibak, K., Kook, E., Reier, Ü., Tamme, R., Bueno, G.C. & Pärtel, M. (2016) Species pools, community completeness and invasion: disentangling diversity effects on the establishment of native and alien species. Ecology Letters 19: 1496-1505.

Kasari, L., Saar, L., de Bello, F., Takkis, K., Helm, A. (2016) Hybrid ecosystems can contribute to local biodiversity conservation. Biodiv Conserv, 25: 3023–3041.

Emmerson, M., Morales, M.N, Oñate, J.J, Batáry, P., Berendse, F., Liira, J., Aavik, T., Guerrero, I., Bommarco, R., Eggers, S., Pärt, T., Tscharntke, T., Weisser, W., Clement, L., Bengtsson, J. (2016) How Agricultural Intensification Affects Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. In: Dumbrell, A.J., Kordas, R.L., Woodward, G. (eds.). Advances in Ecological Research 55 (Large-Scale Ecology: Model Systems to Global Perspectives), pp. 43-97, Oxford: Academic Press. doi:10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.005.

Ronk, A., de Bello, F., Fibich, P., Pärtel, M. (2016) Large-scale dark diversity estimates: new perspectives with combined methods. Ecol Evol, 6: 6266–6281.

Tamme, R., Gazol, A., Price, J. N., Hiiesalu, I., Pärtel, M. (2016) Co-occurring grassland species vary in their responses to fine-scale soil heterogeneity. Journal of Vegetation Science, 27: 1012–1022..

Bennett, J. A., Riibak, K., Tamme, R., Lewis, R. J., Pärtel, M. (2016) The reciprocal relationship between competition and intraspecific trait variation. Journal of Ecology, 104: 1410–1420..

de Bello, F., Fibich, P., Zelený, D., Kopecký, M., Mudrák, O., Chytrý, M., Pyšek, P., Wild, J., Michalcová, D., Sádlo, J., Šmilauer, P., Lepš, J. & Pärtel, M. 2016. Measuring size and composition of species pools: a comparison of dark diversity estimates. Ecology and Evolution 6: 4088-4101.

Meriste, M., Helm, A., Ivask, M. (2016) Ground-dwelling spider fauna of flooded meadows in Matsalu, Estonia. Wetlands, 36: 525–537..

Pärtel, M., Bennett, J.A. & Zobel, M. (2016) Macroecology of biodiversity: disentangling local and regional effects. New Phytologist 211: 404–410.

Kook, E., Pihu, S., Reier, Ü., Thetloff, M., Aavik, T. & Helm, A. (2016) Do landscape dissimilarity and environmental factors affect genetic and phenotypic variability in Myosotis laxa s. lato (Boraginaceae)? Annales Botanici Fennici 53: 56-66

de Bello, F., Carmona, C. P., Lepš, J., Szava-Kovats, R. & Pärtel, M. (2016) Functional diversity through the mean trait dissimilarity: resolving shortcomings with existing paradigms and algorithms. Oecologia 180: 933–940.

Öpik, M., Davison, J., Moora, M., Pärtel, M. & Zobel, M. (2016) Response to Comment on “Global assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus diversity reveals very low endemism”. Science, 351, 826-826.

Májeková, M., Paal, T., Plowman, N.S., Bryndová, M., Kasari, L., Norberg, A., Weiss, M., Bishop, T.R., Luke, S.H., Sam, K., Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Lepš, J., Götzenberger, L., & de Bello, F. (2016) Evaluating Functional Diversity: Missing Trait Data and the Importance of Species Abundance Structure and Data Transformation. PlosOne, 11: e0152532

Grace, J.B., Anderson, T.M., Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Adler, P.B., Harpole, W.S., Hautier, Y., Hillebrand, H., Lind, E.M., Pärtel, M., Bakker, J.D., Buckley, Y.M., Crawley, M.J., Damschen, E.I., Davies, K.F., Fay, P.A., Firn, J., Gruner, D.S., Hector, A., Knops, J.M.H., MacDougall, A.S., Melbourne, B.A., Morgan, J.W., Orrock, J.L., Prober, S.M., & Smith, M.D. (2016) Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness. Nature 529: 390–393.

Lewis, R.J., Szava‐Kovats, R., & Pärtel, M. (2016) Estimating dark diversity and species pools: An empirical assessment of two methods. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7: 104-113.


Fraser, L.H., Pärtel, M., Pither, J., Jentsch, A., Sternberg, M. & Zobel, M. 2015. Response to Comment on "Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness". Science 350: 1177.

Davison, J., Moora, M., Öpik, M., Adholeya, A., Ainsaar, L., Bâ, A., Burla, S., Diedhiou, A.G., Hiiesalu, I., Jairus, T., Johnson, N.C., Kane,A., Koorem, K., Kochar, M., Ndiaye, C., Pärtel, M., Reier, Ü., Saks, Ü., Singh, R., Vasar, M., Zobel M. (2015) Global assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus diversity reveals very low endemism. Science 349: 970-973.

Fraser, L.H., Pither, J., Jentsch, A., Sternberg, M., Zobel, M., Askarizadeh, D., Bartha, S., Beierkuhnlein, C., Bennett, J.A., Bittel, A., Boldgiv, B., Boldrini, I.I., Bork, E., Brown, L., Cabido, M., Cahill, J., Carlyle, C.N., Campetella, G., Chelli, S., Cohen, O., Csergo, A.-M., Díaz, S., Enrico, L., Ensing, D., Fidelis, A., Fridley, J.D., Foster, B., Garris, H., Goheen, J.R., Henry, H.A.L., Hohn, M., Jouri, M.H., Klironomos, J., Koorem, K., Lawrence-Lodge, R., Long, R., Manning, P., Mitchell, R., Moora, M., Müller, S.C., Nabinger, C., Naseri, K., Overbeck, G.E., Palmer, T.M., Parsons, S., Pesek, M., Pillar, V.D., Pringle, R.M., Roccaforte, K., Schmidt, A., Shang, Z., Stahlmann, R., Stotz, G.C., Sugiyama, S., Szentes, S., Thompson, D., Tungalag, R., Undrakhbold, S., van Rooyen, M., Wellstein, C., Wilson, J.B., Zupo, T. (2015) Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness. Science 349: 302-305.

Bagaria, G., Helm, A., Rodà, F. & Pino, J. (2015) Assessing coexisting plant extinction debt and colonization credit in a grassland–forest change gradient. Oecologia, 179, 823-834.

Reitalu, T., Gerhold, P., Poska, A., Pärtel, M., Väli, V., Veski, S. (2015) Novel insights into post-glacial vegetation change: functional and phylogenetic diversity in pollen records. Journal of Vegetation Science 26, 911-922.

Ingerpuu, N., Sarv, M. (2015) Effect of grazing on plant diversity of coastal meadows in Estonia. Annales Botanici Fennici 52, 84-92.

Helm, A. (2015) Habitat restoration requires landscape-scale planning. Applied Vegetation Science 18, 177-178.

Gerhold, P., Cahill, J. F. Jr., Winter, M., Bartish, I. V., Prinzing, A. (2015) Phylogenetic patterns are not proxies of community assembly mechanisms (they are far better). Functional Ecology 29: 600–614.

Ronk, A., Szava-Kovats, R., Pärtel, M. (2015) Applying the dark diversity concept to plants at the European scale. Ecography 38, 1015-1025.

Sutcliffe, L. M. E., Batáry, P., Kormann, U., Báldi, A., Dicks, L. V., Herzon, I., Kleijn, D., Tryjanowski, P., Apostolova, I., Arlettaz, R., Aunins, A., Aviron, S., Baležentienė, L., Fischer, C., Halada, L., Hartel, T., Helm, A., Hristov, I., Jelaska, S. D., Kaligarič, M., Kamp, J., Klimek, S., Koorberg, P., Kostiuková, J., Kovács-Hostyánszki, A., Kuemmerle, T., Leuschner, C., Lindborg, R., Loos, J., Maccherini, S., Marja, R., Máthé, O., Paulini, I., Proença, V., Rey-Benayas, J., Sans, F. X., Seifert, C., Stalenga, J., Timaeus, J., Török, P., van Swaay, C., Viik, E., Tscharntke, T. (2015) Harnessing the biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland. Diversity and Distributions 21, 722–730.

Riibak, K., Reitalu, T., Tamme, R., Helm, A., Gerhold, P., Znamenskiy, S., Bengtsson, K., Rosén, E., Prentice, H. C., Pärtel, M. (2015) Dark diversity in dry calcareous grasslands is determined by dispersal ability and stress-tolerance. Ecography 38, 713-721.

Helm, A., Zobel, M., Moles, A. T., Szava-Kovats, R., Pärtel, M. (2015) Characteristic and derived diversity: implementing the species pool concept to quantify conservation condition of habitats. Diversity and Distributions 21, 711–721.


Ingerpuu, N., Nurkse, K., Vellak, K. 2014. Bryophytes in Estonian mires. Estonian Journal of Ecology 63, 3-14.

Winqvist, C., Bengtsson, J., Öckinger, E., Aavik, T., Berendse, F., Clement, L.W., Fischer, C., Flohre, A., Geiger, F., Liira, J., Thies, C., Tscharntke, T., Weisser, W.W., Bommarco, R. (2014). Species’ traits influence ground beetle responses to farm and landscape level agricultural intensification in Europe. Journal of Insect Conservation 18, 837-846.

Szava-Kovats, R., Pärtel, M. (2014) Biodiversity patterns along ecological gradients: unifying β-diversity indices. Plos ONE 9, e110485.

Kook, E., Vedler, E., Püssa, K., Kalamees, R., Reier, Ü., Pihu, S. (2015) Intra-individual ITS polymorphism and hybridization in Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria angustifolia L. (Boraginaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 301, 893-910.

Aavik, T., Bosshard, D., Edwards, P.J., Holderegger, R., Billeter, R. (2014) Fitness in naturally occurring and restored populations of a grassland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi in a Swiss agricultural landscape. Restoration Ecology 22, 98-106.

Aavik, T, Holderegger, R., Bolliger, J. (2014) The structural and functional connectivity of the grassland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi. Heredity 112, 471-478.

Bennett, J.A., Stotz, G.C., Cahill, J.F. (2014) Patterns of phylogenetic diversity are linked to invasion impacts, not invasion resistance, in a native grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science 6, 1315-1326.

Helm, A., Kalamees, R., Zobel, M. (2014) Vegetation patterns and their underlying processes: where are we now? Journal of Vegetation Science (Special Feature - Vegetation Patterns and their Underlying Processes) 25, 1113–1116.

Pärtel, M. (2014) Community ecology of absent species: hidden and dark diversity. Journal of Vegetation Science (Special Feature - Vegetation Patterns and their Underlying Processes) 25, 1154-1159.

Lewis, R.J., Pakeman, R.J., Angus, S., Marrs, R.H. (2014) Using compositional and functional indicators for biodiversity conservation monitoring of semi-natural grasslands in Scotland. Biological Conservation 175, 82-93.

Bennett, J.A., Gensler, G.C., Cahill, J.F. (2014) Small-scale bee patch use is affected equally by flower availability and local habitat configuration. Basic and Applied Ecology 15, 260-268.

Hiiesalu, I., Pärtel, M., Davison, J., Gerhold, P., Metsis, M., Moora, M., Öpik, M., Vasar, M., Zobel, M., Wilson, S.D. (2014) Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass. New Phytologist 203, 233-244.

Talve, T., Mürk, M., Lindell, T., Oja, T. (2014) Rhinanthus plants found in calcareous fens on Gotland (Sweden): Are they related to Rhinanthus osiliensis from Saaremaa (Estonia)? Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 54, 113-122.

Kalwij, J.M., Robertson, M.P., Ronk, A., Zobel, M., Pärtel, M. (2014) Spatially-explicit estimation of geographical representation in large-scale species distribution datasets. PloS One 9:e85306.

Breeze, T.D., Vaissière, B.E., Bommarco, R., Petanidou, T., Seraphides, N., Kozák, L., Scheper, J., Biesmeijer, J.C., Kleijn, D., Gyldenkærne, S., Moretti, M., Holzschuh, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Stout, J.C., Pärtel, M., Zobel, M., Potts, S.G. (2014) Agricultural policies exacerbate honeybee pollination service supply-demand mismatches across Europe. PloS One 9: e82996.

Lewis, R.J., Marrs, R.H., Pakeman, R.J. (2014) Inferring temporal shifts in landuse intensity from functional response traits and functional diversity patterns: a study of Scotland's machair grassland. Oikos 123, 334-344.

Price, J.N., Gazol, A., Tamme, R., Hiiesalu, I., Pärtel, M. (2014) The functional assembly of experimental grasslands in relation to fertility and resource heterogeneity. Functional Ecology 28, 509-519.

Tamme, R., Götzenberger, L., Zobel, M., Bullock, J.M., Hooftman, D.A.P., Kaasik, A., Pärtel, M. (2014) Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits. Ecology 95, 505-513.

Reitalu, T., Helm, A., Pärtel, M., Bengtsson, K., Gerhold, P., Rosén, E., Takkis, K., Znamenskiy, S. & Prentice, H.C. (2014) Determinants of fine-scale plant diversity in dry calcareous grasslands within the Baltic Sea region. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 184, 59-68.

Lewis, R.J., Pakeman, R.J., Marrs, R.H. (2014). Identifying the multi-scale spatial structure of plant community determinants of an important national resource. Journal of Vegetation Science 25, 184-197.


Aavik, T., Holderegger, R., Edwards, P.J., Billeter, R. (2013) Patterns of contemporary gene flow suggest low functional connectivity of grasslands in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology 50, 395-403.

Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Buckley, Y., Cleland, E.E., Davies, K., Firn, J., Harpole, W.S., Hautier, Y., Lind, E., MacDougall, A., Orrock, J.L., Prober, S.M., Adler, P., Alberti, J., Michael Anderson, T., Bakker, J.D., Biederman, L.A., Blumenthal, D., Brown, C.S., Brudvig, L.A., Caldeira, M., Chu, C., Crawley, M.J., Daleo, P., Damschen, E.I., D'Antonio, C.M., DeCrappeo, N.M., Dickman, C.R., Du, G., Fay, P.A., Frater, P., Gruner, D.S., Hagenah, N., Hector, A., Helm, A., Hillebrand, H., Hofmockel, K.S., Humphries, H.C., Iribarne, O., Jin, V.L., Kay, A., Kirkman, K.P., Klein, J.A., Knops, J.M.H., La Pierre, K.J., Ladwig, L.M., Lambrinos, J.G., Leakey, A.D.B., Li, Q., Li, W., McCulley, R., Melbourne, B., Mitchell, C.E., Moore, J.L., Morgan, J., Mortensen, B., O'Halloran, L.R., Pärtel, M., Pascual, J., Pyke, D.A., Risch, A.C., Salguero-Gómez, R., Sankaran, M., Schuetz, M., Simonsen, A., Smith, M., Stevens, C., Sullivan, L., Wardle, G.M., Wolkovich, E.M., Wragg, P.D., Wright, J., Yang, L. (2013) Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness? Global Change Biology 19, 3677 - 3687.

Pärtel, M., Szava-Kovats, R., Zobel, M. (2013) Community completeness: linking local and dark diversity within the species pool concept. Folia Geobotanica 48, 307-317.

Barnaud, A., Kalwij, J.M., McGeoch, M.A., Jansen van Vuuren, B. (2013). Patterns of weed invasion: evidence from the spatial genetic structure of Raphanus raphanistrum. Biological Invasions 15, 2455-2465.

Gazol, A., Tamme, R., Price, J.N., Hiiesalu, I., Laanisto, L., Pärtel, M. (2013) A negative heterogeneity–diversity relationship found in experimental grassland communities. Oecologia 173, 545-555.

Kasari, L., Gazol, A., Kalwij, J.M., Helm, A. (2013) Low shrub cover in alvar grasslands increases small-scale diversity by promoting the occurrence of generalist species. Tuexenia 33, 293-308.

Szava-Kovats, R., Ronk, A., Pärtel, M. (2013) Pattern without bias: local-regional richness relationship revisited. Ecology 94, 1986–1992.

Barnaud, A., Kalwij, J.M., Berthouly-Salazar, C., McGeoch M.A., Jansen van Vuuren, B. (2013) Are road verges corridors for weed invasion? Insights from the fine-scale spatial genetic structure of Raphanus raphanistrum. Weed Research 53, 362–369.

Gerhold, P., Price, J.N., Püssa, K., Kalamees, R., Aher, K., Kaasik, A., Pärtel, M. (2013) Functional and phylogenetic community assembly linked to changes in species diversity in a long-term resource manipulation experiment. Journal of Vegetation Science (Special Feature - Functional diversity) 24, 843-852.

Takkis, K., Pärtel, M., Saar, L., Helm, A. (2013) Extinction debt in a common grassland species: immediate and delayed responses of plant and population fitness. Plant Ecology 214, 953-963.

García-Cervigón, A.I., Gazol, A., Sanz, V., Camarero, J.J., Olano, J.M. (2013) Intraspecific competition replaces interspecific facilitation as abiotic stress decreases: the shifting nature of plant-plant interactions. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 15, 226-236.

Öpik, M., Zobel, M., Cantero, J.J., Davison, J., Facelli, J.M., Hiiesalu, I., Jairus, T., Kalwij, J.M., Koorem, K., Leal, M.E., Liira, J., Metsis, M., Neshataeva, V., Paal, J., Phosri, C., Põlme, S., Reier, Ü., Saks, Ü., Schimann, H., Thiéry, O., Vasar, M., Moora, M. (2013). Global sampling of plant roots expands the described molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 23, 411-430.

Haussmann, N.S., Rudolph, E.M., Kalwij, J.M., McIntyre, T. (2013) Fur seal populations facilitate establishment of exotic vascular plants. Biological Conservation 162, 33-40.

Price, J.N. & Pärtel, M. (2013) Can limiting similarity increase invasion resistance? A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Oikos 122, 649-656.

le Roux, P.C., Ramaswiela, T., Kalwij, J.M., Shaw, J.D., Ryan, P.G., Treasure, A.M., McClelland, G.T.W., McGeoch, M.A., Chown, S.L. (2013) Human activities, propagule pressure and alien plants in the sub-Antarctic: Tests of generalities and evidence in support of management. Biological Conservation 161, 18-27.

Yuan, Z., Gazol A., Lin, F., Ye, J., Shi, S., Wang, X., Wang, M., Hao, Z. (2013) Soil organic carbon in an old-growth temperate forest: spatial pattern, determinants and bias in its quantification. Geoderma 195-196, 48-55.

Laanisto, L., Tamme, R., Hiiesalu, I., Szava-Kovats, R., Gazol, A., Pärtel, M. (2013). Microfragmentation concept explains non-positive environmental heterogeneity-diversity relationships. Oecologia 171, 217-226.

Chown, S.L., le Roux, P.C., Ramaswiela, T., Kalwij, J.M., Shaw, J.D. & McGeoch, M.A. (2013) Climate change and elevational diversity capacity: do weedy species take up the slack? Biology Letters 9, 20120806.

Kalwij, J.M., Smit, C. (2013). How authors can maximise the chance of manuscript acceptance and article visibility. Learned Publishing 26, 28-31.


Aavik, T., Edwards, J.P., Holderegger, R., Graf, R., Billeter, R. (2012) Genetic consequences of using seed mixtures in restoration: A case study of a wetland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi. Biological Conservation 145, 195-204.

Guerrero, I., Morales, M.B., Oñate, J.J., Geiger, F., Berendse, F., de Snoo, G., Eggers, S., Pärt, T., Bengtsson, J., Clement, L.W., Weisser, W.W., Olszewski, A., Ceryngier, P., Hawro, V., Liira, J., Aavik, T., Fischer, C., Thies, C., Tscharntke, T. (2012) Response of ground-nesting farmland birds to agricultural intensification across Europe: Landscape and field level management factors. Biological Conservation 152, 74-80.

Leifso, A., MacDougall, A.S., Husband, B., Hierro, J.L., Köchy, M., Pärtel, M., Peltzer, D.A. (2012) Expansion of a globally pervasive grass occurs without substantial trait differences between home and away populations. Oecologia 170, 1123-1132.

Pärtel, M., Hiiesalu, I., Öpik, M. & Wilson, S.D. (2012) Belowground plant species richness: new insights from DNA-based methods. Functional Ecology 26, 775–782.

Gazol, A., Tamme, R., Takkis, K., Kasari, L., Saar, L., Helm, A. & Pärtel, M. (2012) Landscape- and small-scale determinants of grassland species diversity: direct and indirect influences. Ecography 35, 944–951.

Liira, J., Ingerpuu, N., Kalamees, R., Moora, M., Pärtel, M., Püssa, K., Roosaluste, E., Saar, L., Tamme, R., Zobel, K. & Zobel, M. (2012) Grassland diversity under changing productivity and the underlying mechanisms – results of a 10-yr experiment. Journal of Vegetation Science 23, 919-930.

Kalwij, J.M. (2012) Review of ‘The Plant List, a working list of all plant species’. Journal of Vegetation Science 23, 998-1002.

Good, M.K., Price, J.N., Clarke, P., Reid, N. (2012) Dense regeneration of floodplain Eucalyptus coolabah: invasive scrub or passive restoration of an endangered woodland community. The Rangeland Journal 34, 219-230.

Wilson, J.B. Peet, R. Dengler, J. Pärtel, M. (2012) Plant species richness: the world records. Journal of Vegetation Science 23, 796–802.

de Bello, F., Price, J.N., Münkemüller, T., Liira, J., Zobel, M., Thuiller, M., Gerhold, P., Götzenberger, L., Lavergne, S., Lepš, J., Zobel, K and Pärtel, M. (2012) Functional species pool framework to test for biotic effects on community assembly. Ecology 93, 2263–2273.

Metsoja, J.-A., Neuenkamp, L., Pihu, S., Vellak, K., Kalwij, J.M. & Zobel, M. (2012) Restoration of flooded meadows in Estonia- vegetation changes and management indicators. Applied Vegetation Science 15, 231-244.

Saar, L., Takkis, K., Pärtel, M., Helm, A. (2012). Which plant traits predict species loss in calcareous grasslands with extinction debt? Diversity and Distributions 18, 808-817.

Marini, L., Bruun, H.H., Heikkinen, R.K., Helm, A., Honnay, O., Kühn, I., Lindborg, R., Pärtel, M., Bommarco, R. (2012) Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss. Diversity and Distributions 18, 898-908.

Price, J.N., Hiiesalu, I., Gerhold, P., Pärtel, M. (2012) Small-scale grassland assembly patterns differ above and below the soil surface. Ecology 93, 1290-1296.

Yuan, Z., Gazol A., Wang, X., Xing D., Lin, F., Bai, F., Zhao, Y., Li, B., Hao, Z. (2012) What happens below the canopy? Direct and indirect influences of the dominant species on forest vertical layers. Oikos 121, 1145-1153.

Hiiesalu, I., Öpik, M., Metsis, M., Lilje, L., Davison, J., Vasar, M., Moora, M., Zobel, M., Wilson, S.D., Pärtel, M. (2012) Plant species richness belowground: higher richness and new patterns revealed by next-generation sequencing. Molecular Ecology 21, 2004-2016.

Szava-Kovats, R., Zobel, M., Pärtel, M. (2012) The local-regional species richness relationship: new perspectives on the null-hypothesis. Oikos 121, 321-326.

Lindborg, R., Helm, A., Bommarco, R., Heikkinen, R., Kühn, I., Pykälä, J., Pärtel, M. (2012) Effect of habitat area and isolation on plant trait distribution in European forests and grasslands. Ecography 35, 356-363.

Moles, A. T., Flores-Moreno, H., Bonser, S. P., Warton, D. I., Helm, A., Warman, L., Eldridge, D. J., Jurado, E., Hemmings, F. A., Reich, P. B., Cavender-Bares, J., Seabloom, E. W., Mayfield, M. M., Sheil, D., Djietror, J. C., Peri, P. L., Enrico, L., Cabido, M. R., Setterfield, S. A., Lehmann, C. E. R., Thomson, F. J. (2012) Invasions: the trail behind, the path ahead, and a test of a disturbing idea. Journal of Ecology 100, 116-127.

Götzenberger, L., de Bello, F., Bråthen, K. A., Davison, J., Dubuis, A., Guisan, A., Lepš, J., Lindborg, R., Moora, M., Pärtel, M., Pellissier, L., Pottier, J., Vittoz, P. , Zobel, K. & Zobel, M. (2012) Ecological assembly rules in plant communities - approaches, patterns and prospects. Biological Reviews 87, 111-127.


Price, J.N., Berney, P., Ryder, D., Whalley, R.D.B. & Gross, C.L. (2011) Disturbance governs dominance of an invasive forb in a temporary wetland. Oecologia 167: 759-769.

Yuan, Z., Gazol, A., Wang, X., Lin, F., Ye, J., Bai, X., Li, B. & Hao, Z. (2011) Scale specific determinants of tree diversity in an old growth temperate forest in China. Basic and Applied Ecology 12: 488-495.

Koorem, K. Price, J.N., and Moora, M. (2011) Species-specific effects of woody litter on seedling emergence and growth of herbaceous plants. PLoS ONE 6(10): e26505.

Price, J.N., Whalley, R.D.B., van Klinken, R.D., Duggin, J.A. & Gross, C.L. (2011) Periodic rest from grazing provided no control of an invasive perennial forb. The Rangeland Journal 33: 287-298.

Good, M.K., Price, J.N., Clarke, P. and Reid, N. (2011) Densely regenerating coolibah (Eucalyptus coolabah) woodlands are more species-rich than surrounding derived grasslands in floodplains of eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 64: 468-479.

Pärtel, M., Szava-Kovats, R. & Zobel, M. (2011) Discerning the niche of dark diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 265-266.

Price, J.N., Macdonald, M.J., Gross, C.L., Whalley, R.D.B. & Simpson, I.H. (2011) Vegetative reproduction facilitates early expansion of Phyla canescens in a semi-arid floodplain. Biological Invasions 13, 285-289.

Whalley, R.D.B., Price, J.N. Macdonald, M.J. & Berney, P. (2011) Drivers of change in the Social-Ecological Systems of the Gwydir Wetlands and Macquarie Marshes in north western NSW. Rangelands Journal 33, 109-119.

Tuvi, E.-L., Reier, Ü., Vellak, A., Szava-Kovats, R. & Pärtel, M. (2011) Establishment of protected areas in different ecoregions, ecosystems, and diversity hotspots under successive political systems. Biological Conservation 144, 1726-1732.

Gerhold, P., Pärtel, M., Tackenberg, O., Hennekens, S.M., Bartish, I., Schaminée, J.H.J., Fergus, A.J.F., Ozinga, W. & Prinzing, A. (2011) Phylogenetically poor plant communities receive more alien species, which more easily coexist with natives. The American Naturalist, 177, 668-80.

Pärtel, M., Szava-Kovats, R., Zobel, M. (2011) Dark diversity: shedding light on absent species. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 124-128.

Zobel, M., Otto, R., Laanisto, L., Naranjo-Cigala, A., Pärtel, M. & Fernández-Palacios, J.M. (2011) The formation of species pools: historical habitat abundance affects current local diversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20(2), 251-259.

Zobel, M., Szava-Kovats, R. & Pärtel, M. (2011) Regional influences on local species composition. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Wiley-Chapman, 1-6.


de Bello, F.; Lavorel, S.; Gerhold, P.; Reier, Ü.; Pärtel, M. (2010). A biodiversity monitoring framework for practical conservation of grasslands and shrublands. Biological Conservation, 143, 9 - 17.

Krauss, J.; Bommarco, R.; Guardiola, M.; Heikkinen, R.; Helm, A.; Kuussaari, M.; Lindborg, R.; Öckinger, E.; Pärtel, M.; Pino, J.; Pöyry, J.; Raatikainen, K.; Sang, A.; Stefanescu, C.; Teder, T.; Zobel, M.; Steffan-Dewenter, I. (2010). Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels. Ecology Letters, 13(5), 597 - 605.

Price, J.N., Morgan, J.W. (2010) Small-scale patterns of species richness and floristic composition in relation to microsite variation in herb-rich woodlands. Australian Journal of Botany 58, 270-279.

Pärtel, M.; Zobel, K.; Laanisto, L.; Szava-Kovats, R.; Zobel, M. (2010). The productivity-diversity relationship: varying aims and approaches. Ecology, 91(9), 2565 - 2567.

Sang, A.; Teder, T.; Helm, A.; Pärtel, M. (2010). Indirect evidence for an extinction debt of grassland butterflies half century after habitat loss. Biological Conservation, 143, 1405 - 1413.

Tamme, R.; Hiiesalu, I.; Laanisto, L.; Szava-Kovats, R.; Pärtel, M. (2010). Environmental heterogeneity, species diversity and coexistence at different spatial scales. Journal of Vegetation Science, 21(4), 796-801.

Vellak, K.; Ingerpuu, N.; Vellak, A.; Pärtel, M. (2010). Vascular plant and bryophytes species representation in the protected areas network on the national scale. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(5), 1353 - 1364.

Xiao, S.; Zobel, M.; Szava-Kovats, R.; Partel, M. (2010). The effects of species pool, dispersal and competition on the diversity-productivity relationship. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19(3), 343 - 351.


Bommarco, R., Öckinger, E., Helm, A. (2009) Life History Traits in Insects and Habitat Fragmentation. In: Settele, J.; Penev, L.; Georgiev, T.; Grabaum, R.; Grobelnik, V.; Hammen, V.; Klotz, S.; Kühn, I. (eds.). Atlas of Biodiversity Risk, pp. 10-11. Pensoft Publisher.

Helm, A.; Oja, T.; Saar, L.; Takkis, K.; Talve, T.; Pärtel, M. (2009). Human influence lowers plant genetic diversity in communities with extinction debt. Journal of Ecology, 1329 - 1336.

Kuussaari, M.; Bommarco, R.; Heikkinen, R. K.; Helm, A.; Krauss, J.; Lindborg, R.; Öckinger, E.; Pärtel, M.; Pino, J.; Roda, F.; Stefanescu, C.; Teder, T.; Zobel, M.; Steffan-Dewenter, I. (2009). Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(10), 564 - 571.

Vellak, A.; Tuvi, E.-L.; Reier, Ü.; Kalamees, R.; Roosaluste, E.; Zobel, M.; Pärtel, M. (2009). Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally rare and anthropogenically rare plant species. Conservation Biology, 23(3), 750 - 757.


Gerhold, P.; Pärtel, M.; Liira, J.; Zobel, K.; Prinzing, A. (2008). Phylogenetic structure of local communities predicts the size of the regional species pool. Journal of Ecology, 96(4), 709 - 712.

Laanisto, L.; Urbas, P.; Pärtel, M. (2008). Why does the unimodal species richness-productivity relationship not apply to woody species: a lack of clonality or a legacy of tropical evolutionary history? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 320 - 326.

Pärtel, M.; Laanisto, L.; Wilson, S.D. (2008). Soil nitrogen and carbon heterogeneity in woodlands and grasslands: contrasts between temperate and tropical regions. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17(1), 18 - 24.

Zobel, M.; Pärtel, M. (2008). What determines the relationship between plant diversity and habitat productivity? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 679 - 684.


Helm, A.; Urbas, P.; Pärtel, M. (2007). Plant diversity and species characteristics of alvar grasslands in Estonia and Sweden. van der Maarel, E. (Eds.). Acta Phytogeographica Suecica 88 (33 - 42). Opulus Press.

Pärtel, M.; Laanisto, L.; Zobel, M. (2007). Contrasting plant productivity-diversity relationships in temperate and tropical regions: the role of evolutionary history. Ecology, 88(5), 1091 - 1097.

Pärtel, M.; Helm, A.; Reitalu, T.; Liira, J.; Zobel, M. (2007). Grassland diversity related to the Late Iron Age human population density. Journal of Ecology, 95(3), 574 - 582.

Pärtel, M.; Zobel, M. (2007). Dispersal limitation may result in the unimodal productivity-diversity relationship: a new explanation for a general pattern. Journal of Ecology, 95(1), 90 - 94.

Pärtel, M.; Helm, A. (2007). Invasion of woody species into temperate grasslands: Relationship with abiotic and biotic soil resource heterogeneity. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18(1), 63 - 70.

Teder, T.; Moora, M.; Roosaluste, E.; Zobel, K.; Pärtel, M.; Kõljalg, U.;Zobel, M. (2007). Monitoring of biological diversity: a common-ground approach. Conservation Biology, 21(2), 313 - 317.


Helm, A.; Hanski, I.; Pärtel, M. (2006). Slow response of plant species richness to habitat loss and fragmentation. Ecology Letters, 9(1), 72 - 77.

Pärtel, M. (2006). Data availability for macroecology: how to get more out of regular ecological papers. Acta Oecologica - International Journal of Ecology, 30(1), 97 - 99.

Znamenskiy, S.; Helm, A.; Pärtel, M. (2006). Threatened alvar grasslands in NW Russia and their relationship to alvars in Estonia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(5), 1797 - 1809.

Zobel, M.; Öpik, M.; Moora, M.; Pärtel, M. (2006). Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: It is time for dispersal experiments. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17(4), 543 - 547.


Pärtel, M.; Bruun, H.H.; Sammul, M. (2005). Biodiversity in temperate European grasslands: origin and conservation. Lillak, R.; Viiralt, R.; Linke, A.; Geherman, V. (Eds.). Integrating efficient grassland farming and biodiversity (1 - 14). Tartu: Estonian Grassland Society.

Pärtel, M.; Kalamees, R.; Reier, U.; Tuvi, EL.; Roosaluste, E.; Vellak, A.; Zobel, M. (2005). Grouping and prioritization of vascular plant species for conservation: combining natural rarity and management need. Biological Conservation, 123(3), 271 - 278.

Reier, U.; Tuvi, EL.; Partel, M.; Kalamees, R.; Zobel, M. (2005). Threatened herbaceous species dependent on moderate forest disturbances: A neglected target for ecosystem-based silviculture. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 145 - 152.

Pärtel, M.; Helm, A.; Ingerpuu, N.; Reier, U.; Tuvi, EL. (2004). Conservation of Northern European plant diversity: the correspondence with soil pH. Biological Conservation, 120(4), 525 - 531.

James, SE.; Pärtel, M.; Wilson, SD.; Peltzer, DA. (2003). Temporal heterogeneity of soil moisture in grassland and forest. Journal of Ecology, 91(2), 234 - 239.

Pärtel, M.; Wilson, SD. (2002). Root dynamics and spatial pattern in prairie and forest. Ecology, 83(5), 1199 - 1203.

Pärtel, M. (2002). Local plant diversity patterns and evolutionary history at the regional scale. Ecology, 83(9), 2361 - 2366.